A thesis based on the Karma Cohort and focusing on mammographic features was defended 11 December, 2020

Shadi Azam has published three papers (see links below) and have one paper in manuscript. Shadi has over the last years worked hard trying to understand the factors behind two mammographic “features” and how these features influence the risk of breast cancer. The features are mammographic density change and breast microcalcifications. None of them are currently particularly well covered in the scientific literature. 

Surprisingly few of the established risk factors for breast cancer influences mammographic density change and the change does not seem to influence subsequent risk of breast cancer. Most factors influencing the risk of breast cancers do not seem to influence the risk of microcalcifications in the same direction. On the other hand, microcalcifications seem to be as a strong risk factor for breast cancer as mammographic density in postmenopausal women. 

Determinants of Mammographic Density Change. Azam et al. 2019. JNCI Cancer Spectr. DOI: 10.1093/jncics/pkz004

Mammographic Density Change and Risk of Breast Cancer. Azam et al. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djz149

Predictors of mammographic microcalcifications. Azam et al. Int J Cancer. 2021. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.33302